Date: November 9-10
Kristallnacht (“Crystal Night” or “Night of Broken Glass”) commemorates the violent anti-Jewish demonstrations that broke out across Germany, Austria and the Sudentenland region of Czechoslovakia.
For 48 hours, violent mobs destroyed hundreds of synagogues and burned or desecrated Jewish religious artifacts. Approximately 7,500 Jewish-owned businesses, homes and schools were destroyed, 91 Jews were murdered, and an additional 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Nazi officials blamed the Jews for the riots and fined the German Jewish community one billion reichsmarks (about $400 million in 1938).
The event was called Kristallnacht, referring to the thousands of shattered windows.
Kristallnacht, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Culture/religion: National observance
Date: November 11
In November 1919, president Wilson proclaimed November 11 as the first commemoration of Armistice Day. Originally, the celebration was to be observed with parades, public meetings and a suspension of business beginning at 11:00 a.m.
In May 1938, November 11 was designated as an annual legal holiday dedicated to world peace and was celebrated as Armistice Day. In 1954, veterans service organizations urged Congress to amend the Act of 1938 by replacing the word “Armistice” with “Veterans.” On June 1, 1954, November 11 officially became known as Veterans Day.
History of Veterans Day, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs