Missouri State University
What's happening in the field?
At the Missouri State Fruit Experiment Station

Grape cane borer

Aaron Taylor and Shelia Long found holes in grape canes as they were pruning. Soon they discovered grape cane borers as well as some other insects inside the holes. For more information on this pest, see http://nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/grapes/pests/gcb.pdf

Grape Cane Borer on grape cane.
Grape Cane Borer on grape cane.
Here is the borer waking up from refrigeration.
Here is the borer waking up from refrigeration.
He woke up and is more difficult to photograph.
He woke up and starts to run away.
Here is the hole in the center of the grape cane caused by the grape cane borer.
Here is the hole in the center of the grape cane caused by the grape cane borer.
Randy Stout split the cane open to reveal a tunnel.
Randy Stout split the cane open to reveal a tunnel.
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Sprayer calibration – the first sign of spring

We calibrated the CIMA airblast sprayer yesterday to get ready to apply sulfur in the dormant season to grapes. Randy Stout and Jeremy Emery, our field supervisors, and Jennifer Morganthaler, an MSU graduate student who works at the experiment station, collected the calibration data as follows.

Tubes were attached to each nozzle between the disc and the manifold.
Tubes were attached to each nozzle between the disc and the manifold.
Discs were set to the desired rate and that rate is verified by calibrating.
Discs were set to the desired rate and that rate is verified by calibrating.
The tank is filled, the sprayer is then run at 16psi, and Jeremy times the spray for 1 minute.
The tank is filled, the sprayer is then run at 16psi, and Jeremy times the spray for 1 minute.
The spray from the 1 minute run is collected in a bucket for each of the 4 outlets.
The spray from the 1 minute run is collected in a bucket for each of the 4 outlets.
The amounts from each nozzle is recorded. The test is performed three times and the average is used to determine how many gallons per acre are applied at the given disc setting.
The amounts from each nozzle is recorded. The test is performed three times and the average is used to determine how many gallons per acre are applied at the given disc setting.
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Lettuce planted in high tunnel on Friday, March 5

We planted 8 cultivars of Salanova lettuce in the high tunnel on Friday, March 5.

The lettuce flats were moved out of the greenhouse and into the tunnel on Tuesday, March 3. They were covered with row cover for protection from the cold.
The lettuce flats were moved out of the greenhouse and into the tunnel on Tuesday, March 3. They were covered with row cover for protection from the cold.
Plants were set 6 inches apart in the row and the rows were planted 18 inches apart.
Plants were set 6 inches apart in the row and the rows were planted 18 inches apart.
The Salanova lettuce cultivars included Red Butter, Green Butter, Green incised, Red Incised, Green Sweet Crisp, Red Sweet Crisp, Green Oakleaf and Red Oakleaf.
The Salanova lettuce cultivars included Red Butter, Green Butter, Green incised, Red Incised, Green Sweet Crisp, Red Sweet Crisp, Green Oakleaf and Red Oakleaf.
Plants were watered in with the overhead sprinkler system after planting.
Plants were watered in with the overhead sprinkler system after planting.
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Minimum temperature -6.7 degrees F last night!

The minimum temperature recorded at the station last night was minus 6.7 degrees Fahrenheit at 6:58 am. Weather had been cold up to this point. We will check for winter bud injury on the unpruned grapes in the Foundation vineyard next week after it warms up in order to get an idea whether or not damage occurred.

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Improving internal water drainage in high tunnel

The east end of the high tunnel tends to collect water. Randy and Jeremy decided to install a tile drainage system to solve this problem. The system was installed today.

Trenches were dug about 18 inches deep in the poorly drained area.
Trenches were dug about 18 inches deep in the poorly drained area.
After the trenches were dug, perforated pipe was put in them. The end of the pipe was covered with screen.
After the trenches were dug, perforated pipe was put in them. The end of the pipe was covered with screen.
The perforated pipe was checked with a level so that it sloped to the east.
The perforated pipe was checked with a level so that it sloped to the east.
Gravel was added to any low areas so the water would flow to the end of the tunnel.
Gravel was added to any low areas so the water would flow to the end of the tunnel.
Pipe connected the two ends of the perforated pile and this ran outside to divert the water.
Pipe connected the two ends of the perforated pile and this ran outside to divert the water.
Here is the assembly at the low end of the tunnel with the pipe running outside.
Here is the assembly at the low end of the tunnel with the pipe running outside.
The perforated pipe is covered with some gravel and then they will be covered with soil.
The perforated pipe is covered with some gravel and then they will be covered with soil.
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Setting up overhead irrigation in the high tunnel

We are getting ready to plant larkspur seed and lettuce transplants in the high tunnel. We are going to plant one bed in the middle of the space to observe how vegetable harvest coincides with the raspberries that were planted in bags last year being moved back into the tunnel for production. Randy, Jeremy and Amanda are setting up the overhead irrigation sprinklers that hang from a wire overhead. The larkspur seed was planted and watered in after the 13-13-13 fertilizer was tilled in at the rate of 1 pound per 100 square feet.

Randy )left), Amanda and Jeremy install the hanging sprinklers to a hose suspended overhead.
Randy )left), Amanda and Jeremy install the hanging sprinklers to a hose suspended overhead. The sprinklers are spaced 3 feet apart down the hose.

 

First the sprinkler head is attached to the spaghetti  tube.
First the sprinkler head is attached to the spaghetti tube.
Here is the assembled sprinkler.
Here is the assembled sprinkler.
Jeremy punches a hole in the suspended hose.
Jeremy punches a hole in the suspended hose.
The sprinkler is inserted into the hose using the weight to help push it in.
The sprinkler is inserted into the hose using the weight to help push it in.
The sprinklers are spaced 3 feet apart and the weight holds them down. The sprinklers more than cover the intended area.
The weight holds them down and in place. The sprinklers covered the intended area more than adequately.
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Grape pruning of the winter hardy cultivars

We are pruning the winter hardy cultivars of grapes first and will prune the less hardy cultivars later in the winter. Dr. Anson Elliott decided to check on the pruning progress on this bright and sunny day. Randy, Aaron, Manny and Kellis were pruning the Norton block in the Research Vineyard while Shelia and Jeremy were taking wood weights in the Catawba block. After the Norton block is complete, they will move into the Catawbas.

The pruning crew is working on the Norton vines in the Research Vineyard.
The pruning crew is working on the Norton vines in the Research Vineyard.
Manny shows Dr. Elliott how he selects spurs that originate close to the cordon.
Manny shows Dr. Elliott how he selects spurs that originate close to the cordon.
Shelia and Jeremy are taking the wood weights in the Catawba block. The wood weights help determine the number of buds to leave on the vines.
Shelia and Jeremy are taking the wood weights in the Catawba block. The wood weights help determine the number of buds to leave on the vines.
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